Compiled by Al Gedicks, Exec. Secretary
Sources for footnotes indicated in report by ( )
1. Beverly A. Reece, "Acid Mine Drainage: Perpetual Pollution," Clementine, Mineral Policy Center, Winter 1995, p. 3.
2. Earle A. Ripley et. al., Environmental Effects of Mining. Delray Beach. Florida: St. Lucie Press, 1996. pp. 209-210.
3. Don Behm, "Study shows little uranium at mine," Milwaukee Journal/Sentinel, 2/20/96.
4 Natural Radioactivity Contamination Problems. Washington, D. C: U.
S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation Programs. February
5. Marlise Simons, "Big Sludge Spill Poisons Land in Southern Spain," The New York Times 5/2/98.
6. Van E. Housman and Stephen Hoffman, "Mining Sites on Superfund's National Priorities List - Past and Current Mining Practices," U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D. C., 1992.
7. Cited in Larry Van Goethem, "Exxon Mine Will Feature Elaborate Waste Water Plan," Milwaukee Journal, 3/28/82.
8. The warranty life of the synthetic material used in the cover system is typically 50 years. Exxon's responsibility for the cover/liner system does not extend beyond 40 years. After that, the costs of monitoring, maintaining and replacing the cover/liner system will fall on the taxpayers. Assuming that replacement is required once every 100 years and the waste dump remains in place for 10,000 years, the 100 cover replacements would cost $800 million dollars. (See David Blowes's comments to the Public Intervenor, July 1995).
9. Beverly A. Reece, "Leaks and Liners 101," Clementine, Summer 1995, p. 3. Washington, D. C., Mineral Policy Center.
10. William Tans, "Updated status report on the Department's continuing review of the proposed Crandon Mine," January 30, 1996, p. 4.
11. Ed Culhane, "Project pits environment vs. good business," Post-Crescent (Appleton), 12/3/95.
12. Charles H. Norris, "Review and Preliminary Assessment of the Permit Application Materials for a Proposed Zinc-and Copper-Sulfide Mine near Crandon, Wisconsin." Geo-Hydro, Inc., Denver, CO. December 1997. p. 14.
13. See comments of Janet M. Smith on the proposed Crandon project, U. S. Department of the Interior, November 1994.
14. Mining Journal Research Services, "Tailings Dams: Reducing the Risks," North American Mining, April/May 1998, p. 10.
15. Charles Norris, op. cit. p. 14.
16. See comments of Janet M. Smith.
17. Sonny Wreczycki, Town of Ainsworth Mining Impact Committee, Letter to Property Owners, January 7, 1998.
18. Dave Blouin, Mining Impact Coalition of Wisconsin, letter in the Pioneer Express (Crandon, WI,) November 2, 1998.
19. Phil Seem, Memo to Ken Fish, Menominee Mining Impacts Office, November 2, 1998, p. 3.
20. Acid Drainage from Mines on the National Forests, U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C., March 1993, p. 3.
21. Beverly A. Reece, "Acid Mine Drainage: Perpetual Pollution," Clementine, Mineral Policy Center, Winter 1995, p. 3.
22. See comments of David W. Blowes, Ph.D. on CMC's waste characterization studies, July 1995.
23. Charles H. Norris, op. cit. p. 13.
24. Ibid. p. 13.
25. "Council opposes Crandon Mine," Wisconsin Trout Unlimited, Fall 1995.
26. "America's Most Endangered Fisheries Announced," Federation of Fly Fishers, August 5, 1999.
27. CMC Mine Permit Application, May 30, 1995, p. 53.
28. Waltraud A. Arts, Comments on the DNR's draft EIS on the Crandon Project, June 19, 1986, p. 14.
29. Charles Norris, op. cit. pp. 14-15.
30. Dr. Cherkauer, cited in Laura Sutherland's comments to the Army Corps of Engineers, February 24, 1995, p. 12.
31. cited in Laura Sutherland, 1995, p. 14.
32. Don Behm, "Professor disputes mine's toll on streams," Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 5/31/98.
33. "Mining Impact Group Disputes Lake Study," The Forest Republican, 11/8/95.
34. Dr. Arthur S. Brooks, "Comments on the DEIS' Description of Water Impacts of the Crandon Project," June 1986, p. 9.
35. "Evaluation of Groundwater Modeling at the Crandon Mining Site," Department of the Army, Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, Mississippi. February 21, 1996.
36. Charles Norris, op. cit. p. 16.
37. Menominee Nation Treaty Rights and Mining Impacts Office survey of U.S. regulatory agencies, 1998.
38. Dr. Arthur S. Brooks, "Comments on the DEIS' Description of Water Impacts of the Crandon Project," June 1986, p. 10.
39. Wisconsin Trout Unlimited, Fall 1995.
40. Ron Seely, "DNR says new study of river unrelated to mining company," Wisconsin State Journal, 4/17/98.
41. David Webb, "Crandon Mine EIS - Mercury," Memo to Bill Tans, DNR, 4/1/97.
42. Associated Press, "Crandon Mining wins approval of water plan for proposed mine," Wisconsin State Journal, 8/13/97.
43. Robert Imrie, "Environmentalists sue over law affecting proposed Crandon Mine," Wisconsin State Journal 6/5/98.
44. Associated Press, "Nicolet Minerals explains new waste-water proposal," Wisconsin State Journal 6/16/98.
45. Ron Seely, "UW sociologist a doubter on mine," Wisconsin State Journal, 1/14/98.
46. Freudenburg, William, "Social, Economic and Environmental Impacts of Mining: Lessons for Wisconsin." A report to the Wisconsin State Assembly committee on Natural Resources, August 1993, p. 18.
47. Murdock, Steve H., Larry Leistritz, and Rita R. Hamm, "The State of Socioeconomic Analysis: Limitations and Opportunities for Alternative Futures." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Association of Agricultural Scientists, Biloxi, Mississippi, February 1985. Cited in "The Socioeconomic Impact of Mining in Wisconsin: A Report to the Wisconsin State Legislature, Assembly Natural Resources Committee," with assistance from William R. Freudenburg, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Summer 1995.
48. Timothy J. Bartik, "Who Benefits from Local Job Growth: Migrants or the Original Residents?" Regional Studies, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1992, p. 297.
49. Mike Wyatt, "Review of Crandon Mining Company Environmental Impact Report, Section 3.14 on Socioeconomics, and Section 4.2.13 on Socioeconomic Impacts." August 25, 1995.
50. Tickamyer, A. R. and C. H. Tickamyer, 1988 "Gender and Poverty in Central Appalachia." Social Science Quarterly 69 (4): 874-891. This finding is not limited to the extreme case of Appalachia. For example, of urban areas where jobs grew 50% faster than average from 1975-1979, almost half had unemployment rates above the national average in 1979. See Thomas Power, The Economic Pursuit of Quality, pp. 156-158.
51. Molotch, Harvey. 1976 "The City as a Growth Machine: Toward a Political Economy of Place." American Journal of Sociology, 82(2): 309-332.
52. Krannich, Richard S. and A. E. Luloff, 1991. "Problems of Resource Dependency in U. S. Rural Communities," Progress in Rural Policy and Planning, 1: 5-18.
53. Freudenburg, William R. and Robert Gramling. 1993. "Natural Resources and Rural Poverty: A Closer Look." Society and Natural Resources 7: 5-22. Also, see Humphrey, Craig R. et. al. 1990. "Theories in the Study of Natural Resource-Dependent Communities and Persistent Rural Poverty in the United States," pp. 136-172 in Persistent Poverty in Rural America. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
54. Paul Peterson, "White Pine Mine to close in September," Milwaukee Journal/Sentinel, 7/13/95.
55. "Exxon Kills the Canary," Multinational Monitor, October 1990.
56. Engineering and Mining Journal, 3/94, p. 19.
57. Milwaukee Journal, 12/11/86; Wall Street Journal, 11/8/93.
58. The Northern Miner, 12/12/94 and 4/4/94.
59. Aaron Lucchetti, "Commodity Prices Fall Amid Turmoil in Asia; Will Damage Spread?" Wall Street Journal, 2/5/98.
60. Gulliford, Andrew, Boomtown Blues: Colorado Oil Shale, 1885-1985. Niwot, Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 1989.
61. "Nashville & Mole Lake receive $2.5 million development grant," Pioneer Express (Crandon, WI) January 18, 1999.
62. See Report on the Track Records of Exxon and Rio Algom, Wisconsin Review Commission, March 24, 1995. Copies available from Midwest Treaty Network, 731 State Street, Madison, WI 53703.
63. Weisz, Robert, "Coping with the Stresses of a Boom: Mental Health Alternatives for Impacted Communities," in Joseph & Judith Ann Davenport (eds.) The Boom Town: Problems and Promises in the Energy Vortex. Laramie: University of Wyoming, 1980.
64. Forbes, 4/29/85, p. 72. Exxon Corporation, 1991 Annual Report, p. 26.
65. See David Blowes's comments on CMC's mine waste studies, 7/26/95, p. 20.
66. See Matthew D. Weber's memo to George Meyer of 8/22/95, pp. 3-4.
67. Andrew McIntosh, "Ousted environment offical to stand trial," The Gazette (Montreal), 7/20/91.
68. Robert Imrie, "Mining company protests town's renege on deal," Wisconsin State Journal, September 24, 1998.
69. Letter from Donald A. Cumming, President of Nicolet Minerals, to Nashville Property Owners, November 9. 1998.
70. Ron Seely, "Firm, town trade barbs," Wisconsin State Journal, June 18, 1999.
71. Sulfide Mining: The Process & The Price: A Tribal & Ecological Perspective. Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission, Odanah, WI, 1996, p. 17.
72. Tribes at Risk: The Wisconsin Tribes Comparative Risk Project, Washington, D. C., October 1992, p. ix.
73. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Exxon Coal and Minerals Co. Zinc-Copper Mine, Crandon, Wisconsin. Madison, Wisconsin. November 1986, p. 108.
74. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Exxon Coal and Minerals Co. Zinc-Copper Mine, Crandon, Wisconsin. Madison, Wisconsin. November 1986, p. 108.
75. Al Gedicks, The New Resource Wars: Native and Environmental Struggles Against Multinational Corporations. Boston: South End Press. 1993, p. 61.
76. Mike Monte, "Court says Mole Lake's water quality standards stay," Pioneer Express (Crandon, WI), May 10, 1999.
77. Peter David, "Study shows adverse impact of heavy metals on wild rice," Masinaigan (Odanah, WI: GLIFWC), Summer, 1997.
78. Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission, Comments on Crandon Mining Company's Notice of Intent to Collect Data and Detailed Scope of Study, Crandon Project, Crandon, Wisconsin, April 23, 1994.
79. Comments of Janet Smith, U. S. Department of the Interior, November 1994. p. 2.
80. "Environmental groups sue mine over emissions," Milwaukee Journal, 8/18/92.
81. Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission, Comments on Crandon Mining Company's Notice to Intent to Collect Data and Detailed Scope of Study, Crandon Project, Crandon, Wisconsin, April 23, 1994.
82. COACT Research, An Analysis of the Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts of Mining and Mineral Resource Development on the Sokaogon Chippewa Community, Madison, Wisconsin, 1980. p. 64, 177, 455.
83. Janet Smith, Department of the Interior, Comments to the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, November 1994. p. 5.
84. Janet Smith, Department of the Interior, Comments to the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, November 1994. p. 3.
85. Can the Wolf River Survive the Impacts of Hardrock Metallic Sulfide Mining? Menominee Tribal Environmental Services, Keshena, Wisconsin, September 1995. p. 6.
86. M. Catherine Condon, Comments of the Menominee Indian Tribe on Crandon Mining Company's Notice of Intent to Collect Data and Detailed Scope of Study. May 1994. p. 1.
87. Isthmus (Madison, WI newsweekly), 5/26/95.
88. Robert Imrie, "Indian consultant disputes mining report," Saint Paul Pioneer Press, 9/15/95.
89. Wesley Andrews, Letter to Arlyn Ackley, 8/16/95. p. 2.
90. Survival International, London, England. 1992.
91. Testimony to the Wisconsin Review Commission, Mole Lake, 6/18/94.
92. Report on the Track Records of Exxon and Rio Algom, Wisconsin Review Commission, March 24, 1995. p. 11.
93. Gregory Palast, "Broken Promises and the Exxon Valdez," Chicago Tribune, 9/21/94
94. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, letter to Zoltan Grossman (Madison, WI). 1/24/94.
95. Green Bay Press-Gazette, January 29, 1999.
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